MP3 Pulse Duplicator
The MP3 is a pulse duplicator designed to generate physiological flows and pressures for testing heart valves while giving full visibility of the device.
Aortic and Peripheral Flow Loops
Combining adjustable vascular clamps with compliant vascular vessels, one can independently adjust systolic and diastolic pressure as well as vascular resistance. When coupled with the programmable pumping system, the MP3 gives a high degree of control over all flow and pressure parameters.
The Motion Control System
The drive system combines the versatility of a programmable stepper or servomotor with a piston. Each cycle can be broken up into as many as 121,600 steps, although most applications use between 1,000 and 2,000 steps. The waveform generated by the motor can be defined with as many as 500 control statements. This versatility allows the user to contour flow and pressure traces with an accuracy not previously attainable with a pulse duplicator. This system provides absolute control of dP/dt which is essential to the elimination of mechanical valve cavitation problems.
MP3 Flow Loop
The MP3 Flow Loop represents several breakthroughs in the technology of designing and operating a cardiovascular simulator. First, LabVIEW®-based computer control and acquisition software gives the user a single programming source to both control the pumping system as well as monitor the important parameters. Custom systems can be designed to automatically adjust to vary performance (i.e. ventricular pressure, flow, etc.) to give true computer control to the system. Analyses can include laser, ultrasound or photographic recording capabilities. The MP3 also utilizes a ventricular design that can be adapted to include varying ventricular compliances if necessary.
Optical transparency of the MP3 system provides viewing when visual, photographic, ultrasound or laser Doppler studies of the valves are of interest. The ventricle chamber and valve holders are machined with ports and adapters to accept aortic flow, aortic pressure, mitral flow, mitral pressure and ventricular pressure transducers. Properties are not subject to change due to age or usage of the acrylic components.
Left Ventricle Chamber
The design of the left ventricle allows for an optically transparent and unobstructed view of the inlet and outlet sides of both the mitral and aortic valves simultaneously. Adapters allow mitral valves of all sizes to be tested. Aortic valve chambers fit into the MP3 to allow for the testing of all sizes of aortic valves. The simple insertion design does not require total emptying of the MP3 to change valves. Customized valve holders optimize the flow dynamics of the ventricle to simulate in vivo flow conditions.
Cardiovascular implants — Cardiac valve prostheses — Part 1: General requirements
Cardiovascular implants — Cardiac valve prostheses — Part 2: Surgically implanted heart valve substitutes
Cardiovascular implants — Cardiac valve prostheses — Part 3: Heart valve substitutes implanted by transcatheter techniques